Practical notes on how to save water on...

Thursday, 29 December 2011


The ball is rolling for WaterAid! The first person has sponsored me in the Cheshire Triathlon. The triathlon is on the 27th May 2012 and I am raising awareness for WaterAid a very worthy charity which provides better sanitation for people all over the world. Poor sanitation kills more people each year than AIDS measles and malaria put together. Simple measures can be put in place to improve sanitation like providng water pumps. WaterAid improves water quality, safeguards water resources for farming and enables more (fit and health) children to attend school. Click here to see what WaterAid do

Please have a look at my sponsorship page to make a donation here The triathlon is a standard sprint distance: swim, bike then run.

Friday, 1 July 2011

Climate Change and Domestic Energy Use

My research article on climate change effects on UK domestic energy consumption was the most popular download from all 2009 and 2010 articles at the BSERT journal! The article discusses the switch to air conditioning in housing due to global warming. To celebrate, the BSERT journal have allowed a free full text version to be downloadable. Click on the link below to read on:

my article in full text

Tuesday, 22 March 2011

A homemade rainwater harvesting system

As it's World Water Day, following on from my last post about collecting rainwater ... this post is all about fitting a homemade rainwater harvesting system. I recommend using a blue barrel with a clamp on lid as a storage tank as the clamp will come in handy to fit the water filters. (but you can use any tank you like, appropriate to the level of rainfall you are expecting to store). Note that storing water for a long time may give you problems due to the attraction of bugs and bacteria (particularly for hotter countries). You may wish to dose your water with chemicals to avoid this. See the following image, click and zoom for details.

heres some pictures of that blue barrel I recommend, these are popular with canoeists:

Note that I say "adapted" fresh water inlet valve, this means you will have to adjust the float arm length or position until you are happy that it refills with normal water to the right minimum level. Something like THIS plus a ball float valve. You may have to extend the arm, use a brass or plastic rod for this, something that won't rust or decay underwater.

Power shower PUMP --you need something that will provide some pressure to deliver water towards the washing machine, particularly when the rainwater tank is nearly empty.

To collect rainwater from the roof, note that the water will swirl around on the inner surface of the rainwater down pipe from the roof. Therefore for capturing this, an inner edge that encourages water towards the opening mouth of your feeder tube (towards the storage tank) can increase the efficiency of collection. Also it is a good idea to have an overflow pipe flowing down at an angle from near the top of the storage tank, back to the rainwater down pipe. This stops excess water going over the top


Water draining away from the washing machine could be collected for reuse -but I'll save that for a separate available - click here

Friday, 18 March 2011

Collecting rainwater

If you want to collect rainwater and start using it, you should first consider how big the tank should be. This depends on how much you can collect and how much you need. Rainwater is absolutely safe to use for watering your garden and washing your car, and if filtered correctly it can be used to run your washing machine. (See my other articles on how to make a rainwater harvesting system and how to connect this to your washing mashine)


To work out how much you can collect, you have to think about how often it rains and how much rain arrives. I live in Manchester, UK, where it's fair to say it rains every 3 days, or we have that kind of reputation anyway! If you live somewhere hot and dry you may have problems with infrequent rain, which, when it does arrive there is so much you hate it and then, all of a sudden, it's gone again and you are back to hot and dry weather. Anyway, you know about where you live so you know best. However, you can look up the rainfall from a local weather station which will give rainfall typically data is millimetres of rain, collected monthly. Now millimetres means just that, the depth of the rainfall, rain falls every where equally so if you have a small cup or a large bucket, you will collect the same number of millimetres, depth of water. The volume of water you collect depends on the AREA of the cup, or the bucket, or the pond or the roof etc. etc. Normally, you can easily get your hands on mean i.e. typical monthly rainfall in millimetres. Try websites like WUNDERGROUND for this. The following graph is for Edinburgh, Scotland -which like Manchester, England, gets frequent rainfall throughout the year. (Click and zoom for a closer look...)


The best way to collect rainwater from a large area is to use the roof of your house. It doesn't matter whether it's a pitched roof with an apex or a flat roof, the pitched roof will not collect anymore water than the flat roof, providing you have a gutter or drainage channel to retrieve the water, and your roof is relatively clean, then, you're in business. If you know the width and length of the roof in metres you can work out how much water you can collect in a month, in the following way:

mm rainfall divided by 1000

x width (metres) x length (metres)

and divide the total by 1000, this is how many litres of water you can collect in a month.

Water Demand = number of litres a month you will use up.

Providing rainwater is filtered, it can be used for laundry. Laundry - 65 litres per load is a good guess for a front loading European style machine.

Rainwater can be used to flush the toilet, this requires some plumbing work to pump the water to the cistern -it will not fill if the supply has no pressure. Water use for toilet flushing -a good guess is 5 flushes per person per day living at home. What type of cistern have you got? 6 litres, 9 litres, 13 litres? see this POST for help

Calculate: cistern size (litres) x no.of people x 5 flushes per day.

Gardening - this could be anything, depends on your passion for gardening!

Add up all you figures for demand from gardening/laundry/toilets.

Compare your demand figure to your litres of rainfall. Ideally you want these figures to be equal, to collect as much as you want to use. If the rainfall is higher then this is not a problem, but if the demand is more then you could try increasing the size of the tank, or looking for another roof to take water from, or reduce your demand somehow. Also remember that water demand for gardening will be seasonal.

To get the right size tank you have to consider another factor -frequency of rainfall, this just goes on your judgement and any detailed rainfall data you can get your hands on of course! In the UK, as it rains so frequently, a 14 day storage is advisable, so that if an enormous deluge of rain occurred and then it was dry for the next 2 weeks you would be able to "ride the wave" between supply and demand. How do you check this -calculate:

14 x daily demand for gardening/laundry/toilet flushing = tank size

Now if you live in Australia, for example, you may find a much, much larger store (storage for 8 weeks or more) is necessary to make your project worthwhile.


Tuesday, 15 February 2011


See this great animated tour of the water cycle by Yorkshire Water and see what happens to create fresh water. Treating water to this high standard takes a lot of energy to pump water from A to B, the waste water treatment and for the cleaning of fresh water taken from rivers and reservoirs. It has been estimated that for each 1000 litres of water arriving at your tap this requires 2.2 kWh of electricity to treat. If your water comes from a desalination plant which convert salty sea water into fresh water this requires a further 1.5 to 2.5 kWh to process, depending on how efficiency the plant is.

And shock horror! News just in .... according to the Guardian 39 million tonnes of "sewage" goes into the river Thames, in London, every year! Now that's gross! The fact remains is that many EU countries pay fines rather than fixing the problem of pumping sewage into rivers or the sea. Most rivers in the UK are over abstracted -i.e. the water companies are regularly taking too much water out of the river and this harms the river ecology.

Any greywater you can divert directly onto your garden, rather than down the drain, cuts out this long cycle of man made treatment and delivery. Water that goes into the ground will be filtered naturally and eventually end up in the sea and evapourate and return as RAIN. Likewise any water you can collect as rain also interrupts this cycle. In areas where acid rain is not a problem and air pollution is closely regulated, rain can be a relatively clean source. Obviously, you must be careful what kind of water you use like this -see my diagram of the WATER USE HIERARCHY

Next time -I'll be blogging about water butts and rain water in preparation for world water day...